Due to some unavoidable reasons, current workshop that was scheduled to be held on 2 - 4 May, 2017 has been postponed. New dates will be announced later.
Inconvenience due to postponement of the workshop is highly regretted

Venue: COMSTECH Secretariat, 33 Constitution Avenue, G-5/2, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Co-operation (COMSTECH) Islamabad, and Karakoram International University, Gilgit Baltistan are organizing a workshop entitled Fluids in the crust: why they matter in genesis of metallic minerals and gemstones” scheduled to be held on May 2 - 4, 2017.

The workshop focuses on the mineral deposits, especially the ore bodies and gemstones that owe their genesis to precipitation from hot mineral-laden fluids; mostly hydrothermal and/or metamorphic fluids. These mineral deposits serve as a major source for raw materials for a large number of industrial products crucial for socio-economic development of human societies since historic times.

The fluid flow is a dominant process associated with mass and energy transport in the Earth’s crust. The hydrothermal solutions involve hot water that serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent. Hydrothermal solutions are primarily rich in hot brines. The solutions are thought to arise in most cases from the action of deeply circulating water. Fault zones provide fractures as deep conduits for water circulation and geothermal heating. Other sources of heating include energy released by magma and radioactive decay. These hydrothermal solutions scavenge metals and rare-earth elements while circulating in the Earth’s crust and on cooling, precipitate metals and gemstones in cavities and veins. Locally, such hydrothermal solutions dissolve the entire rock bodies and replace them with ore bodies. Hydration and dehydration processes associated with regional and contact metamorphism yield similar results and are a source of formation of ore bodies at metamorphic fronts.

Workshop Objectives

  • A review of fluids in Earth’s crust; understanding their genesis, composition, physical and chemical properties, circulation mechanism, dissolution of metallic and rare-earth elements, deposition in cavities and fractures forming pockets and veins forming mineral deposits.
  • Introduction to new concepts arising from advances in analytical technologies (fluid inclusions, scanning electron microscopy, age dating etc) for greater success in resource exploration.
  • Focusing on success stories from case studies from Pakistan and around the world to enhance understanding about exploration and mining of ore bodies and gemstones. 

Expected Participants:

  • Researchers/Research students
  • Teaching Faculty
  • Mineral Technologists/Mining Engineers

Focal Person of the Workshop:

Professor M. Asif Khan,
Karakoram international University, Gilgit-Baltistan

Principal Resource Person:

Professor Peter J. Treloar,
Department of Geography and Geology,
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, London.

Local Resource Persons:

  • Professor Muhammad Tahir Shah, Vice Chancellor, FATA University.
  • Professor Tahseenullah Khan, Chairman, Department of Earth Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad
  • Professor Rehan ul Haq Siddiqui, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences.
  • Professor M. Qasim Jan, COMSTECH, Islamabad
  • Dr. Mumtaz Muhammad Shah, Assistant Professor, Department of Earth Science, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
  • Mr. Yaqoob Shah, Ex-General Manager, FATA Development Authority, Peshawar
  • Mr. Azhar Khan, Director General Minerals, Ministry of Natural Resources, Pakistan
  • Mr. Fuzail Siddiqui, Advisor, Directorate of Mines and Minerals, Peshawar, Islamabad.

Workshop Layout

Days and Dates



Tuesday, May 2nd

Fluids as ore-bodies and gemstone forming agents

  1. Introduction
  2. Magmas and magmatic hydrothermal fluids
  3. Metamorphic Fluids
  4. Formation Fluids
  5. Metal Speciation Models

Wednesday, May 3rd

Fluids and Mineralization


  1. Porphyry systems
  2. Epithermal systems
  3. Orogenic Gold
  4. Magmatic Sn, Pb, Zn deposits
  5. MVT style Pb-Zn deposits

Thursday, May 4th

  1. Gemstones
  2. Tectonics of Himalayas
  1. Pegmatites
  2. Gem Minerals
    • Pegmatite systems
    • Emeralds
    • Jade
    • Other coloured stones
  3. The Himalaya - modern models
  4. North Pakistan – a typically Himalayan
  5. Rounding up

Registration Fee:
There is no registration fee for foreign participants from OIC Member States.  Registration fee for local participants is Pak Rs. 2000. Full time students can avail 60% discount.

Local Hospitality:
COMSTECH will provide accommodation and meals for selected participants from OIC member states and residing outside the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Travel grants are not available. Airport pick- and- drop service on arrival and departure will be provided to all participants upon prior information.

Registration Process:

Step 1: Download application form from here.

Step 2: Read instructions in the application form carefully and submit properly filled form to hanifa@comstech.org/naveed@comstech.org/comstech@comstech.org or rubinabilqees@gmail.com .

Foreign participants must submit scanned copy of first three pages of their passport along with the application form.

Step 3: If you are selected we will notify you by email. Therefore, please regularly check your emails.

Workshop Coordinators:

Hanifa Beg/Naveed Aamer

Program Manager

Tel: +92-51-9220681-3

Fax: +92-51-9205264, +92-51-9220265

Email: hanifa@comstech.org, naveed@comstech.org


Professor M. Asif Khan served as Tenured Professor and Director at the National Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar. He has a PhD from the Imperial College London and four international post-doctoral fellowships at the University of Texas, Dallas, Penn State, Oxford and Lehigh University, USA. His fields of interest include tectonics, geochemistry and mineralogy/petrology, and lately natural hazards. He is recipient of several national and international awards including Scientist of Year award by Pakistan Book Council in 1990, Gold Medal in Earth Sciences from Pakistan Academy of Sciences in 2002. President of Pakistan conferred on him the Civil Award of Tamgha-i-Imtiaz in 2000. He was elected to the Honorary Fellowship of the Geological Society London (2008), fellowship of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2010) and appointed as Distinguished National Professor by Higher Education Commission in 2012. Dr. Khan has published over 100 research papers, two colored geological maps, three books, including one published at London.

Professor Peter J. Treloar obtained his PhD in geology from Glasgow University in 1978 with specialization in structural geology and metamorphic petrology. He had two NERC-funded postdoctoral fellowships; one at the electron microprobe lab in the Department of Earth Sciences at Cambridge University and second at Imperial College, London. His five years in Imperial College were spent in the Himalayan Research Unit, working largely in NW Pakistan in some stupendous mountain terrains. Here he developed a geochronologically constrained model for crustal thickening, metamorphism and exhumation during the India-Asia collision. He joined the Kingston University in 1990 as a Senior Lecturer in Metamorphic Petrology and has been the Professor of Mineralogy and Petrology since 2008. Research over these years has revolved around quantitative mineral chemistry and has involved continuing studies in modern mountain belts such as the Himalaya, the Andes and the Caucasus, Archaean terrains in southern Africa, alkaline complexes in NW Russia and latterly mineral deposit studies in West Africa, East Africa, Greece and Eastern Europe. Lately, he led the Mineral Deposit Research group, which is part of the Geodynamics and Crustal Processes Group of CEESR, supported by exploration companies including Randgold Resources, European Goldfields (Eldorado), Euromax, Newmont, Sirius and Phelps Dodge as well as by NERC. He supervised 15 PhD students and has published over 90 papers in the peer reviewed literature. He served on the Council of the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland for over ten years including five years as Publications Manager and two spells as Vice-President.

Professor M. Qasim Jan received BSc Hons, MS, PhD, and Honorary DSc. He spent much of his active life in Peshawar University from where he retired as Vice Chancellor, before a tenure of VC at Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. He is currently holding the position of Adviser COMSTECH and is also Professor Emeritus at Peshawar. He is a member/Fellow of several societies and academies, and has received many awards. Qasim Jan has carried out extensive investigations of the geology, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of the northwestern Himalayan region and Nagar Parkar area of Pakistan, with emphasis on crust-building and geodynamic processes. He participated actively in several national and international research projects, and has published extensively, including joint authorship of the seminal book “Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan”.